STDs and STIs Diseases, Symptoms and Their Prevention Measures

STDs and STIs Diseases, Symptoms and Their Prevention Measures

STD or STIs is a disease that is transmitted through mucous membranes and genital secretions of men and women, the pharynx, and rectum.

Unsafe sexual practices among young people are considered to be one of the main reasons behind STDs. It will not cause serious problems if the disease is caught early and get the right treatment.

If it were not, the infection will spread and cause complications such as infertility. The disease is easy to be caught, by the knowledge of the disease about the signs of the disease and how to get care is important.

Luckily, there are treatment options.

Common symptoms

Bad-smelling or unusual discharges from the genital area, burning and itching, unusual bleeding, pain felt around the pelvic area amongst women, pain felt during sex, warts or open sores around or on the genitals, and having recurring urinary tract infections or pain during urination, are some of the most obvious symptoms of infection from an STD.

Keep in mind that these are just common symptoms. Talk to a doctor or a healthcare professional if you notice these symptoms happening to you so that they can properly diagnose your case.

Other symptoms can include enlargement or swelling of the groin area, jaundice or yellowing of white area of eyes and the skin, unusual anal discharge, white tongue or oral thrush, bumps, and sores around the oral area and rashes in certain parts of the body.

Commonly encountered diseases STDs and prevention measures


gonorrhea bacteria magnified

Symptoms usually appear 3-5 days after infection occurs. For men, the yellow-green discharge will occur and the pain will be felt during urination. Discharge also is found in women. Sometimes both men and women did not show any signs.

Treatment of gonorrhea-Antibiotics, Both partners need to take care and sex must be stopped until the treatment has ended.

Risk of gonorrhea- If the infection is not detected and treated, the infection will spread and cause infertility in both men and women. There are several types of gonorrhea resistant to antibiotics, so it is important for someone to be treated by a medical practitioner who is authorized to appropriate treatment.


chlamydia bacteria magnified

Chlamydia is caused by bacteria and usually no symptoms. Infection may not be noticed until it starts to cause problems. Landmarks such as discharge and pain during urination may occur. The disease can occur with gonorrhea.

Treatment of Chlamydia- Antibiotics, it is important that both spouses take care and stop sex until treatment is completed.

Risk of Chlamydia- If the disease is left untreated, the infection will spread and cause inflammation and uterus and infertility may occur. These infections are often occurring.


syphilis magnified

The first sign of infection is small wounds (ulcers) that do not cause pain in the infected area. Usually, these are on the genitals or mouth.

It will be visible after 9 to 90 days after infection occurs. This will disappear after a few days and may do not detected. The infection goes out of the body for a certain period until a red rash develops on the whole body. This also may not be detected/recognized.

Treatment of Syphilis- Antibiotics, Both partners must be treated and sex must be stopped until treatment is completed. If the ulcer is not detected, a blood test should be performed to detect the disease.

Risk of Syphilis- If syphilis is left, it will cause problems in the future.

Among the complications are frequently found heart disease, especially in the later stages.

Dementia also occurs due to infection of the brain. Women can infect her unborn child and cause birth defects. Treatment can be started at any time and success more secure and faster if treatment can be started earlier.


chancroid magnified

This infection causes small lesions that cause pain in the wound and the area around the genitals. Cuts will grow and will not heal by it.

Treatment of Chancroid- Antibiotics, both partners need to be treated and must stop all sexual contact until treatment is completed.


herpes symptoms on skin

Herpes is caused by a virus that attacks the nerve endings. The early signs after infection are often accompanied by pain. Burn (blister) will occur in a small-infected area – oral and sex – about 2-20 days after infection occur. This may be accompanied by high fever, general pain in the body and swollen lymph glands. This burn will break after 2-4 days and will heal itself. The next attack will occur 3-4 times a year and intensity of these attacks will decrease as the infection becomes long.

Treatment of Herpes-Antiviral, both partners need to be treated and stopped sex until treatment is completed.

Risk of Herpes-A pregnant woman can infect her unborn child. This infection can infect the brain and cause birth defects.


Women often complain that there were a foul discharge, itching and feeling pain during sex. Men were no signs at all. Signs will occur 2-3 days after infection occurs.

Treatment of Trichomoniasis-Both partners need to be treated and sex must be stopped until treatment is completed.


This infection occurs in the vagina and is caused by a fungus. It causes a white discharge and itching in the vagina. The disease is not necessarily caused by wiper relationship because it can occur by itself.

Treatment of Candidiasis- The drug was added to the vaginal antifungal.


A type of virus that causes the warts seen on the genitals or around the genitals. Wart is a lump of opalescent skin and is especially difficult to detect in women’s cavity birth. Signs are often seen 3-9 months after infection occurs. Lengthy incubation period makes it difficult for fixing the origin of this infection and allows impaction occurs.

Treatment of Condyloma- It can be treated with a solution called podophyllin. Wart is applied to the medicine and left for 4 hours. After 4 hours, this medication can cause irritation. Sexual intercourse cannot be done until the entire Wart was destroyed. Both partners should be examined.

Risk of Condyloma- Women who have been infected by a virus condyloma should undergo regular cervical screening. This is because the virus can cause cervical cancer.

Infection by this virus very often happens.

Therefore, If you have a hunch that you have a certain type of sexually transmitted disease, you should go for screening tests to verify your doubts. Diagnostic tests are recommended when symptomatic

If you are pregnant or soon to be pregnant, you can go for an STD test to know whether or not your baby is safe. The main problem with tests is that many STDs can go asymptomatic for a long period of time. So you may not know that you are carrying a virus, which puts your partner at increased risk of infection

Top 5 Health Issues that Old People Need to Worry About

Top 5 Health Issues that Old People Need to Worry About

By the STI HIV RIO Team

Over the past few years, advances in health care have improved the lifespan of many people all over the world and helped them live longer now than ever before.

It is becoming much easier to deal with these health problems and the elderly are well-prepared to manage them on a daily basis.

Therefore, it is necessary that we should have some knowledge about the most widespread medical conditions in older people so that we can handle them well if diagnosed.

Here are top 5 most common health issues facing senior people today:

1. Diabetes

diabetes prick

Older people are more prone to developing diabetes due to major changes that happen when their bodies get aged.

In fact, diabetes is a lifelong disease, which is caused when your pancreas does not produce enough amount of insulin.

Diabetes might be identified and prevented early with a simple blood test for measuring the levels of sugar in your blood.

The sooner you are aware that you are at risk of this health issue, the sooner you could start making some modifications to control it and improve the long-term health outlook in senior years.

There are many changes in your diet and lifestyle that can help avoid this health issue, including:

  1. Adopt a healthy and balanced diet by reducing the intake of fat and carbs in daily meals, as well as increasing the amount of fiber in vegetables and fruits.
  2. Become more physically active by doing exercises, walking, or jogging on a regular basis.

2. Arthritis

an x-ray of arthritis patient

Arthritis is basically the breakdown of tissues in the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, restricted movement and weakness within the affected areas.

It is a very common medical condition, happening in people of all ages, especially older citizens.
There are 2 main kinds of arthritis: rheumatoid and osteoarthritis arthritis.

The latter type is most common in senior people because it is often triggered by wear and tear that is resulted from the use of our joints during the lifetime.

It is quite easy to notice the development of this health condition with some signs such as inflammation around and in the joints, restricted movements in the joints, and stiffness, tenderness, pain in the joints.

Unfortunately, there is still no cure for this health issue, but there are some available treatments such as corticosteroids and painkillers, which might help slow down the problem.

Though arthritis might discourage you from doing some activities, it is advisable to work with your healthcare provider to create a personal activity schedule that, along with other treatments, can help keep your senior health.

3. Chronic bronchitis

x-ray of bronchitis

As a respiratory condition, chronic bronchitis is mainly caused by an infection that inflames and irritates the bronchi in your lungs, leading to the overproduction of mucus.

Under the effect of this health issue, your body will try to shift the excess mucus by coughing.

Therefore, chronic bronchitis will make you cough more frequently for an extended period of time.

The condition can be trigger by either a bacteria or virus, which is similar to the cause of flu and colds, making it quite challenging to differentiate during the diagnosis.

Basically, you can look out for some common signs of chronic bronchitis such as fatigue, headaches, sore throat, a blocked or runny nose, pains and aches in your chest.

If diagnosed with this health issue, the most important thing that you need to do is to quit smoking.
Cigarettes can only make the problem worse and it might take longer to treat.

In addition, you should also ensure that you are having a healthy and balanced diet to help avoid the infections in lungs.

During the effects of chronic bronchitis, make sure to drink a lot of fluids to prevent dehydration, take plenty of rest, and take ibuprofen or paracetamol to treat a headache.

4. Cancer

cancer tumors

Cancer is a condition where the body cells abnormally replicate and cause a deadly tumor in some parts of the body.

These abnormal cells can multiply and cause the tumor to grow quickly and spread to other areas through the bloodstream.

It is estimated that cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst people over the age of 65, and a third of the world population would suffer from this medical condition at some points in their lives.

There are more than 200 strains of cancer, such as lung cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, which can be diagnosed early through screening like colonoscopies, mammograms, and skin checks.

Although it is not always able to prevent this health issue, you can improve the quality of life as an older people coping with cancer by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and working with your doctor.

Some symptoms that you can look for in cancer condition include an unexpected lump, a sudden weight loss, unexplained blood in the urine, stool when vomiting or coughing.

The survival rate of cancer is much lower for senior people, thus it is important to identify these symptoms early and begin the treatments as soon as possible.

5. Asthma

woman using asthma inhaler

Asthma happens when the airways in your body are sensitive to some common allergens in the environment and get inflamed.

This inflammation might result in a frightening and painful attack, which makes the airway muscles narrow and tighten so you can find it difficult to breathe normally.

Older people are more prone to asthma and this medical condition can worsen when they have the flu or cold.

There are 3 common signs of asthma that you can notice: coughing, a tight feeling in the chest, and regularly being out of breath.

Since asthma might be disruptive to the life of a person and become a life-threatening issue, make sure to treat it properly by working closely with your doctor.

Final thoughts

When we get older, we always expect that our lives would become easier.

We hope retirement as the period when we can finally have much time and relax with family.

However, there are always concerns, and health issues are one of them.

Senior people have to overcome many challenges which are common to all ages as well as some problems that are naturally specific to their age group.

Therefore, be prepared and understand these health issues can be the best way to prevent and live a healthy life.