What Is The Field Of Urology?

What Is The Field Of Urology?

male urinary tract diagramUrology is a medical field that mainly focuses on diseases involving the urinary tract and the male reproductive organ.

A urologist is what you’d call a professional who has studied in the field of urology.

They are primarily healthcare physicians who specialize in treating, diagnosing and detecting various health problems involving this particular area of the human physiology.

Urologists focus on diseases involving the following organs- the ureters, the bladder, the kidneys, the adrenal glands and the urethra.

For male patients, urologists take a look at the following organs- the seminal vesicles, the penis, the vas deferens, the epididymis, the testes and the prostrate.

As a whole, the field or urology studies the many concerns regarding conditions such as prostate enlargement and urinary tract infections.

It also takes a look at how these conditions may be managed in cases of stress incontinence, the presence of kidney stones, prostate cancer and bladder cancer.

In cases where cancer is involved, urologists usually partner up with other medical field experts like radiotherapists or oncologists.

If the kidneys are involved, urologists talk to a nephrologist because of their innate expertise in the field.

In dealing with problems of the female reproductive system, urologists can call up on the help of a gynecologist.

Other experts that could be called in to collaborate include pediatricians and endocrinologists regarding issues with one’s endocrine system and hormonal imbalances.

If you intend to study urology, then you’d better prepare to study the ins and outs for a long time.

Urologists will have to complete a 5-year post-graduate training program, gain experience in general surgery for 12 months and clinical urology for 36 months.

The remaining months can be used to study more general surgery, clinical urology or disciplines that are related to the urinary tract and male reproductive system.

Once you acquire a urology degree you can branch off into more specific specialties.

Pediatric Urology

x-ray of male organ

Some of the things urologists will be touching upon in pediatric urology include vesicoureteral reflux, underdeveloped genitalia, cryptorchidism and other genitourinary issues that children may face while growing up.


Specializing in the field of neurourology include managing conditions involving control over the genitourinary system.

Some of the most common health issues include abnormal urination.

Sometimes, neurological circumstances can lead to the development of neurourological conditions, i.e., spinal cord injuries, strokes, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

Urologic Oncology

nephrologist holding kidney

This field greatly focuses in on malignancies in the human organs, i.e., testicular cancer, ureters, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, the adrenal glands, kidney cancer and cancer of the penis.


Urologists can enter the field of endourology and deal with closed manipulation involving the urinary tract.

It has now grown to be minimally invasive, thanks to technological advancements over the recent years.

Endourology procedures include ureteral surgery, stone removal surgery and prostate surgery.


Andrology mainly deals with the male reproductive issues such as infertility, ejaculatory disorders, erectile dysfunction and procedures such as reversal of vasectomy and the like.

Now that you know what urology is and what a urologist does, it’s time to find out when you should see a urologist.

When Should You Visit A Urologist?

A urologist can help you when you’re experiencing the following health conditions:


Urinary tract infections happen when bacteria travels from the digestive tract up to the urethral area.

Individuals who are afflicted with UTIs have the following symptoms- incontinence, fever, vomiting, nausea, constant pain and abnormal urination.

UTIs are more likely to happen to women as compared to men.


Incontinence is a condition that makes you lose control of your bladder.

There are many reasons why this could happen.

It could be due to age, to pre-existing health conditions or loss of muscle control.

This happens to women after childbirth- their pelvic muscles get weak as they progress into the late stages of pregnancy.

Enlarged Prostate


Did you know that BPH, or benign prostatic hyperplasia affects 1 of 3 men as they reach the age of 50?

You may start experiencing difficulty peeing on command because there’s an excess of prostate gland cells causing your urethra to constrict.

Seeing a urologist can help alleviate the symptoms and treat the condition.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are solidified acid salts and minerals that block the ureter area.

Individuals who suffer from kidney stones have great difficulty passing urine.

What’s more, they experience pain while peeing and often suffer from vomiting and nausea.

Erectile Dysfunction

Men who are suffering from erectile dysfunction often have more serious underlying health problems.

The penis is unable to become fully rigid in the prospect of having sex with a partner.

Male Infertility

Infertility in men can be caused by several reasons.

Sperm quality can affect motility, or some areas of the male reproductive system may be damaged.

lots of sperm swimming

A urologist can help come up with an exact diagnosis and the proper treatment for a speedy recovery.

The usual procedure when visiting a urologist will be a physical examination and probing questions regarding your medical history.

The urologist may also order follow-up tests in order to pinpoint the problem.

Ultrasound, MRI scans and CT scans can provide laser-like targeting.

They can also make use of a cystoscope, which is a long and thin probe equipped with a small camera.

This probe can be send down to your urinary tract in order to get a visual.

Sometimes, cystoscopes are used to take tiny tissue samples for testing purposes.

A simple urine test can be done to see if there’s bacteria lurking in your urinary tract.

A biopsy can be ordered to check for malignant cell growth or cancerous tumors.

A urologist may recommend the proper treatment following a thorough diagnosis.

Hormonal treatment is usually done in cases of prostate cancer.

UTIs, or infections are treated with antibiotics.

PDE5 inhibitors can be used to treat erectile dysfunction.

Chemotherapy is usually the prescribed treatment for cancer.

Moreover, surgery can be done to remove a kidney stone, relieve stress incontinence, remove a tumor in the prostate or bladder area or a part of a kidney.

Urologists can perform circumcisions and vasectomies as well for medical, religious or cultural reasons.

Top 5 Health Issues that Old People Need to Worry About

Top 5 Health Issues that Old People Need to Worry About

By the STI HIV RIO Team

Over the past few years, advances in health care have improved the lifespan of many people all over the world and helped them live longer now than ever before.

It is becoming much easier to deal with these health problems and the elderly are well-prepared to manage them on a daily basis.

Therefore, it is necessary that we should have some knowledge about the most widespread medical conditions in older people so that we can handle them well if diagnosed.

Here are top 5 most common health issues facing senior people today:

1. Diabetes

diabetes prick

Older people are more prone to developing diabetes due to major changes that happen when their bodies get aged.

In fact, diabetes is a lifelong disease, which is caused when your pancreas does not produce enough amount of insulin.

Diabetes might be identified and prevented early with a simple blood test for measuring the levels of sugar in your blood.

The sooner you are aware that you are at risk of this health issue, the sooner you could start making some modifications to control it and improve the long-term health outlook in senior years.

There are many changes in your diet and lifestyle that can help avoid this health issue, including:

  1. Adopt a healthy and balanced diet by reducing the intake of fat and carbs in daily meals, as well as increasing the amount of fiber in vegetables and fruits.
  2. Become more physically active by doing exercises, walking, or jogging on a regular basis.

2. Arthritis

an x-ray of arthritis patient

Arthritis is basically the breakdown of tissues in the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, restricted movement and weakness within the affected areas.

It is a very common medical condition, happening in people of all ages, especially older citizens.
There are 2 main kinds of arthritis: rheumatoid and osteoarthritis arthritis.

The latter type is most common in senior people because it is often triggered by wear and tear that is resulted from the use of our joints during the lifetime.

It is quite easy to notice the development of this health condition with some signs such as inflammation around and in the joints, restricted movements in the joints, and stiffness, tenderness, pain in the joints.

Unfortunately, there is still no cure for this health issue, but there are some available treatments such as corticosteroids and painkillers, which might help slow down the problem.

Though arthritis might discourage you from doing some activities, it is advisable to work with your healthcare provider to create a personal activity schedule that, along with other treatments, can help keep your senior health.

3. Chronic bronchitis

x-ray of bronchitis

As a respiratory condition, chronic bronchitis is mainly caused by an infection that inflames and irritates the bronchi in your lungs, leading to the overproduction of mucus.

Under the effect of this health issue, your body will try to shift the excess mucus by coughing.

Therefore, chronic bronchitis will make you cough more frequently for an extended period of time.

The condition can be trigger by either a bacteria or virus, which is similar to the cause of flu and colds, making it quite challenging to differentiate during the diagnosis.

Basically, you can look out for some common signs of chronic bronchitis such as fatigue, headaches, sore throat, a blocked or runny nose, pains and aches in your chest.

If diagnosed with this health issue, the most important thing that you need to do is to quit smoking.
Cigarettes can only make the problem worse and it might take longer to treat.

In addition, you should also ensure that you are having a healthy and balanced diet to help avoid the infections in lungs.

During the effects of chronic bronchitis, make sure to drink a lot of fluids to prevent dehydration, take plenty of rest, and take ibuprofen or paracetamol to treat a headache.

4. Cancer

cancer tumors

Cancer is a condition where the body cells abnormally replicate and cause a deadly tumor in some parts of the body.

These abnormal cells can multiply and cause the tumor to grow quickly and spread to other areas through the bloodstream.

It is estimated that cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst people over the age of 65, and a third of the world population would suffer from this medical condition at some points in their lives.

There are more than 200 strains of cancer, such as lung cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, which can be diagnosed early through screening like colonoscopies, mammograms, and skin checks.

Although it is not always able to prevent this health issue, you can improve the quality of life as an older people coping with cancer by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and working with your doctor.

Some symptoms that you can look for in cancer condition include an unexpected lump, a sudden weight loss, unexplained blood in the urine, stool when vomiting or coughing.

The survival rate of cancer is much lower for senior people, thus it is important to identify these symptoms early and begin the treatments as soon as possible.

5. Asthma

woman using asthma inhaler

Asthma happens when the airways in your body are sensitive to some common allergens in the environment and get inflamed.

This inflammation might result in a frightening and painful attack, which makes the airway muscles narrow and tighten so you can find it difficult to breathe normally.

Older people are more prone to asthma and this medical condition can worsen when they have the flu or cold.

There are 3 common signs of asthma that you can notice: coughing, a tight feeling in the chest, and regularly being out of breath.

Since asthma might be disruptive to the life of a person and become a life-threatening issue, make sure to treat it properly by working closely with your doctor.

Final thoughts

When we get older, we always expect that our lives would become easier.

We hope retirement as the period when we can finally have much time and relax with family.

However, there are always concerns, and health issues are one of them.

Senior people have to overcome many challenges which are common to all ages as well as some problems that are naturally specific to their age group.

Therefore, be prepared and understand these health issues can be the best way to prevent and live a healthy life.